Administrator Login

English

Class XII

Prose

  1. The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (Louis Fischer)
  2. The Eclipse (Selma Lagerlof)
  3. The Last Class—The Story of a Little Alsatian (Alphonse Daudet)

Poem

  1. John Keats
  2. A thing of beauty (Endimiom)
  3. Addressed to Hyden
  4. Kamla Das
  5. A losing battle
  6. An Introduction
  7. Pablo Neruda
  8. I do not love you
  9. If You Forget Me

 

Grammar

  1. Use of finite and non finite
  2. Conversation
  3. Interrogative with WH word
  4. Joining
  5. Splitting (omission of unnecessary word)
  6. Use of proper preposition
  7. Voice change
  8. Use of perfect verb
  9. Punctuation

Letter writing

  1. Informal letter
  2. To father:- for replacing watch and propose to spend the money,
    To brother:- advising to study hard and study hard including advise to avoid bad company, To friend:- inviting to sped vacation and thanking him for your nice stay with him,
    To uncle:- describing an educational trips or picnic.                                               

  3. Formal letter

To headmaster or principal:- for providing computer learning facility, requesting him to grant you a leave for five days, and to make a book available in library.
To the editor:-  about the need to check noise pollution in the city
To the telephone authorities:- about dead telephone
To bookseller:- for sending books for approval
To the postmaster:- complaining against the postman 

  1. Transformation, punctuation
  2. Short Paragraph
  3. Health is wealth
  4. Value of games
  5. A birthday party
  6. The season or the book I like most
  7. Prize distribution function of your school
  8. The wonders of science
  9. A hot summer day
  10. My visit to a historical place
  11. Dowry system in india
  12. My hobby
  13. A scene at a village fair
  14. Population problem
  15. My school garden
  16. Life without television
  17. If , I am a teacher
  18. School magazine
  19. Newspaper
  20. A school picnic
  21. Morning walk

 


Hindi

गद्य

  1. जयशंकरप्रसाद
  2. ममता
  3. गुंडा
  4. सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी निराला
  5. पद्मा और लिली
  6. प्रेमचंद
  7. कर्तव्य और प्रेम का संघर्ष
  8. बडे घर की बेटी

कविता

तुलसीदास के दोहे  मलिक मोहम्मद जायसी पद्मावती-रूप-चर्चा-खंड पदमावती-वियोग-खंड विद्यापति षटपदी दोहा रहीम के दोहे

उ. व्याकरण
१. क्रिया - भेद अकर्मक, सकर्मक, वाक्य भेद - मिश्र वाक्य, अव्यय समुच्चय बोधक, क्रिया विशेषण, अन्य अविकारी शब्द,
वाच्य कर्तृ, अकर्तृवाच्य। पुनरावृति
२. समाज - अव्ययीभाव, अनेकार्थी शब्द, तत्पुरूष, कर्मधारय, द्विगु, द्वंद्व, बहुब्रीहि, पुनरावृति
ऊ. (रचना) निबंध
१. आदर्श विद्यार्थी, जीवन में खेलों का महत्व, दहेज प्रथा, समाचार-पत्र का महत्व, चलचित्रों का प्रभाव, बेकारी की समस्या,
विज्ञान-वरदान या अभिशाप, राष्ट्रीय एकता, विद्यार्थी और अनुशासन, परोपकार, साम्प्रदायिकता एक अभिशाप, कम्प्यूटर आज की जरूरत,
भारत की ब‹ढती जनसख्ंया, दिपावली, गणतत्रं दिवस (२६ जनवरी), समय अमूल्य धन है, बिरसा मुण्डा, मेरे प्रिय पुस्तक, मदिरा पान-
एक सामाजिक कलंक, महात्मा गांधी, प्रौ‹ढ शिक्षा।
ए. पत्र-लेखन (अनौपचारिक एंव औपचारिक - पत्र)
१. पिता का - स्कूल फीस जमा करने हेतु पाँच सौ रुपए की माँग करें।, मित्र को - आपने गर्मी की छुट्टी कैसे बिताई।, छोटे भाई को- विद्यालय
में प्रथम स्थान पर उत्तीर्ण होने पर एक बधाई-पत्र।, मित्र को- उनकी सहायता के लिए उन्हें धन्यवाद का पत्र।, माता को-परीक्षा के तैयारी के
विषय में।, ग्रीष्मावकाश में किसी शैलावास की यात्रा करने के विषय में।, मित्र को- परीक्षा में प्रथम स्थान आने पर बधाई पत्र।
(प्रार्थना, धन्यवाद, शिकायती, शुभकामना, कार्यालयी, आवेदन तथा बधाई पत्र)
१. प्रधानाघ्यापक को - अवकाश के लिए आवेदन पत्र।, प्रधानाचार्य को- छात्रवृति के लिए प्रार्थना पत्र।, रेलवे अधिकारी को- यात्रा के दौरान अपने
समान की चोरी के बारे में।, पोस्टमास्टर को- अनियमित डाक-वितरण की शिकायती-पत्र।, स्वास्थ्य अधिकारी को- मच्छरों के ब‹ढते हुए प्रकोप
के संबंध में।, टेलीफोन विभाग के पदाधिकारी को- टेलिफोन लाईन में ग‹डब‹डी के संबंध में।, प्रधानाध्यापक को- छात्रावास में स्थान के लिए
आवेदन-पत्र।

(अपठितांशावबोधनम्)
80-100 शब्दपरिमितः एकसरलः अपठितः गद्यांशः।
खण्डः ‘ख’
(संस्कृतेन रचनात्मकं लिखितकार्यम्)
पद्ध अनौपचारिकं पत्रम्@प्रार्थनापत्रम्
;पपद्ध लघुकथा (शब्दसूचीसाहाय्येन, रिक्तस्थानपूर्ति-माध्यमेन)
;पपपद्ध संकेताधारितम् अनुच्छेदलेखनम्
(चित्रमधिकृत्य@निर्दिष्टशब्दसूची-साहाय्येन)

(अनुप्रयुक्तव्याकरणम्)
;पद्ध पाठाधारिताः सन्धिच्छेदाः
स्वरसन्धिः, व्यंजनसन्धिः, विसर्गसन्धिः
;पपद्ध पाठाधारितसमस्तपदानां विग्रहाः
अव्ययीभावः, द्विगुः द्वन्द्वः, तत्पुरुषः, कर्मधारयः, बहुव्रीहिः
;पपपद्ध प्रत्ययाः
अधोलिखितप्रत्यययोगेन वाक्यसंयोजनम्@सङ्केताधारिक्तिस्थानपूर्तिः
(अ) कृत् - क्त, क्तवतु, क्त्वा, तुनम्, त्लप्, तव्यत्, अनीयर्
क्तिन् शतृ, शानच्
(आ) तद्धित - मतुप्, इन्, ठक्, ठ´्, त्व, तल्,
;पअद्ध अन्वितितिः
कत्र्ता - क्रिया-अन्वितिः@विशेषण-विशेष्य-अन्वितिः
;अद्ध उपपदविभक्तिप्रयोगः (पाठ्यपुस्तकम् आधृत्य)
भागः ;प्द्ध
(पठितांश-अवबोधनम््)
(अ) अंशत्रयम्
;पद्ध एकः गद्यांशः
;पपद्ध एकः नाट्यांशः
;पपपद्ध एकः पद्यांशः
आ ;पद्ध उद्धृतांशानाम् प्रसङ्गसन्दर्भलेखनम् कः कम् कथयति@सन्दर्भग्रन्थस्य
लेखकस्य च नामोल्लेखनम्
;पपद्ध प्रदत्ते भावार्थत्रये शुद्धभावार्थचयनम् @ प्रदत्ते भावार्थे रिक्तस्थानपूर्तिः
;पपपद्ध उद्धृतश्लोकानाम् अन्वयेषु रिक्तस्थानपूर्ति ः
;पअद्ध प्रदत्तवाक्यांनां क्रमायोजनम्
;अद्ध प्रदत्तपंक्तिषु प्रसङ्गानुसारं श्लिष्टपदानाम्@पदानाम् अर्थलेखनम्
भागः ;प्प्द्ध
(सामान्यः संस्कृतसाहित्यपरिचयः)
1. (अ) पाठ्यपुस्तके संकलितपाठ्यांशानां कवीनां कृतीनां संस्कृतेन परिचयः (1ग5)
(आ) संस्कृते गद्य-पद्य-नाटकादिविधानां मुख्यविशेषतानां परिचयः
पुस्तकानि
ऋतिका (द्वितीयः भागः) (पाठ्यपुस्तकम्) (के.मा.शि.सं. द्वारा प्रकाशितम्)
व्याकरणसौरभम् (सन्दर्भपुस्तकम्) (रा.शै.अनु.प्र. परिषदा प्रकाशितम्) (संशोधितसंस्करणम्)
रचनानुवादकौमुदी (सन्दर्भपुस्तकम्) कपिलदेवद्विवेदीलिखितम् विश्वविद्यालयप्रकाशनम्, वाराणसी
संस्कृतसाहित्यपरिचयः (सन्दर्भपुस्तकम्) (रा.शै.अनु.प्र. परिषदा प्रकाशितम्) (संशोधितसंस्करणम्)

 


BENGALI
Class XII

  1. Two unseen passage
  1. Grammar
  2. Formation and transformation of sentences
  3. Preposition, verb and adverb
  4. Idioms
  5. One word for more than more

 

  1. Letter
  2. Formal
  3. Informal
  1. Writing
  2. Notice
  3. Short essay
  4. Descriptive essay
  5. Biography

 

  1. Seen (prose)
  2. Life of Mahatma (translated)
  3. Detective (Rabindranath Tagore)
  4. Bebodhan (rabindranath_tagore)
  5. Chandpal Ghaat -KERI SAHEBER MUNSI - Pramathanath Bishi
  1. Seen (Poem)

Poem extracted from Geetanjali
রূপ  -জসীমউদ্দীন
 নূরুল ইসলাম
ঈশ্বর কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম

 


URDU

Class XII

1. Reading Skills :
(i) Comprehension of two  unseen passage of about 150 words
2. Writing Skills :
(i) Essay
(ii) Letter writing (Formal & Informal)
connected with daily life and application writing)
(iii) Precis Writing
(iv) Sentence making with the help of idiomatic phrases
(v) Advertisements 5
Book I
GulistaneAdab- NCERT
B. Book II 20
KhayabaneUrdu- NCERT
.
Recommended Book :
1. Urdu Qawaid, published by the NCERT, New Delhi.

 


MALAYALAM
CLASS XII

1. Grammar:
Elementary metres and alankaras
1. Upama
2. Utpreksha
3. Atishyokthi
4. Rupakam
2. Writing Skills
A general study of newspapers/magazines and periodicals
in the language with the object of writing
(i) Reportsofsimpleevents
(ii) Letter to Editor
(iii) Comprehension of an unseen passage followed
by short question
3. Prose, Poetry
1. Text book : ‘SAHITYA DARPANAM’Collection of Essays, Stories and Poems
Prescribed by SCERT., Govt. of Kerala Pub. by All Saints International CMS College
Road, Kottayam,Kerala (2005 Edition.)
2. Moulana Abul Kalam Azad (Biography) by Dr. M. Leelavathy Pub. by Lipi
Publications, Kozhikode Prescribed by SCERT, Govt. of Kerala (2003 Edition.)
3. Vidura Bhiksha by Ulloor (Poem) Prescribed by SCERT Govt. of Kerala
(Complete text) Pub. by Ulloor Publications, Thiravanthapuram, Kerala.

 


ORIYA
CLASS XII

LANGUAGE
 Reading Skills
Unseen Passage for Reading/Comprehension followed by 4 to 10
5 questions. 1 mark may be allocated for suitable heading.
 Writing Skills
1. Essay on Current topics (Social and Cultural issues)
2. Letter to the Editor of Newspaper
3. Factual description of place or object
 Applied Grammar, Prosody and Rhetorics
(i) Applied Grammar
1. Transformation of sentences
(Simple, Complex, Compound)
2. Idioms and Proverbs
3. Correction of errors in words
(ii) Prosody and Rhetorics
1. Prosody (Sama, Bisama, Matra bruta)
2. Rhetorics (Anuprasa, Rupak)

 Literature
Prose : Prescribed Text : Gadya Dhara, Orissa State Bureau of 20
Text Book preparation and Production, Bhubaneswar, 2006
1. Swadhina Chinta Biswanath Kar
2. Odia Jati Kie Gopabandhu Das
3. Kshyama Mayadhar Mansingh
4. Manisa (2) Bhubaneswar Behera
5. Jatira Jibana O Samskruti Golak Bihari Dhal
6. Madhu Sandhan Chandra Sekhar Rath
Marks
Poetry : Prescribed text : Padya Dhara, Orissa State Bureau of Text Book 2020
Preparation and Production,
Bhubaneswar, 2006
Enu Kapota
Guru Moro - Jagannath Das
Jagate Kebala - Baladev Rath
Mo Jibana Pachhe Narke Padithau
- Bhima Bhoi Mu Hata Bahuda
- Fakir Mohan Senapati
Barsa - Radhanath Roy
Utkala Kamala
- Godabarisha Mohapatra
Chhota Mora Ganti - Sachidananda Routroy
Grama Patha - Binod Chandra Nayak
Sarata Rutura Janma - Guru Prasad Mohanty

Drama : Buxi Jagabandhu by Manoranjan Das, Dasarathi Pustakalya, Cuttack-2

 

 


PUNJABI
CLASS XII

LANGUAGE
 Reading Skills
One unseen passage of about 150 words followed by 4-5 questions to test comprehension and
inferring meanings.Asuggestive heading may be asked and vocabulary may be tested.
 Writing Skills
1. Essay on a current topic
related to social or culturalissue
2. Story building, composing messages and factual
3. Letter to the editor
Section C : Applied Grammar
1. Idioms
2. Proverbs
3. Marking punctuation marks in a small paragraph
4. Analysis of Sentences
5. Correction of Sentences

 Literature
Poetry
1. Questions based on one out of two extracts taken from the poem
2. Questions to test factual comprehension and interpretation
Drama
1. Four short type questions based on one out of two extracts taken from drama
2. A long question to test the theme, plot, character and setting based on the drama
Short Story
1. Questions based on one out of two extracts taken from the story
2. Questions to test the theme/character based on
the short story. History of Punjabi Literature
The origin, growth, development and characteristics of Punjabi Literature with special reference to the following
literature movements and forms : Adikal, Gurmat Kav, Sufi Kav, Modern Poetry, Novel, Drama, Prose and
Short Story.
Poetry :
Kav Kirti published by Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar The following poets are to be studied
1. Bhai Veer Singh
2. Dhani Ram Chatrik
3. Puran Singh
4. Prof. Mohan Singh
5. Amrita Pritam
6. Pritam Singh Safir
7. Bawa Balwant
8. Harbhajan Singh
9. Shiv Kumar
10. Tara Singh
Drama :
Shobha Shakti by Dr. Harcharan Singh, Published by Arsee Publishers, Pleasure Garden Chandni Chowk,
Delhi.
Short Story
Katha Kahani, published by Punjabi Academy, New Delhi-55

 


TAMIL

Class XII

Grammar:
Letter writing :
Grammar :
1. Correction of Errors
2. Vallinam Migum Idangal
3. Do as directed
Thanvinai, peravinai, Seivinai, Seyapattuvinai, Udan Paattuvinai. Edhirmaraivinai, Nerkuttrru,Ayar
Kurtru, Thani Vakkiyam. Thodar Vakkiyam, Kalavai Vakkiyam.
Letter Writing
Paraattuk Kaditham,Aarudhal Kaditham Sirappu Nigazhchigallukku
Azhaippu Kaditham, Vinnappak Kaditham, Muraieettu Kaditham

Unseen reading and comprehension
Patthi vina vidai
Neerkaanal (Karpanai)
(or) Patthi or Seyyul Pagudi Koduthu vinaAmaithal
Composition and Essay Writing
(Literature, Science, CurrentAffairs)

LITERATURE

Prose from prescribed text (Answer only two questions. 20
Following lessons) : lessonno:
1. Vuyar thanich Chemmozhi-by Paridhimaar Kalainjar
2. Samarasam by Thiru-vi-ka
3. Kavidhai-Prof.S.Vaiapurippillai
4. Vaazhkai-by Illavazhaganaar
5. Neethe noolgalil Ilakkia Nayam by Dr. A. Chidambaranathan.

Poetry and figures of speech from prescribed textPoetry Section
Annotation
1. Vazhthu
(i) Irai vazhthu
(ii) Mozhi Vazhthu
(iii) Naattu Vazhthu
2. Thokai Nuulkal
(i) Purunaanuru
(ii) Aganaannuru
(iii) Kurunthogai
3. Thirukural: Sainanriarithal, Porraiudaimai,Arrivudaimai, Vinaithitpam.
4. Thodarnelai seijul
(i) Silappadhikaaram
(ii) Kamba Ramayanam
(iv) Pandian Parisu

Kathai Kovai (Non-detailed text book) class-XII part-I Tamil
Short Story
Story No:
1. Paalvannam Pillai-by Pudumai Pithan
2. Aayaa-T. Janakiraman
3. Mookkappillaiveettu Virundhu-by Vallikannan
4. Chattai-Jeyakanthan
5. Veli-Rajam Krishnan
Text Books:
1. Podhu Thamizh Text Book Class XII Edition 2005
(Published byTamilnadu Text Book Society)
2. Kathai Kovai-non-detailed Text book Class XII-Edition 2005
(published byTamilnadu Text Book Society)

 


TELUGU
CLASS XII

Grammer
1. Prosody and Rhetorics
(i) Prosody
(ii) Alankaras
Metre: Champakamala, Utpalamala, Mattebha, Shardula, Ataveladi,
Tetagiti, Kandamu and Seesamu
Alankaras: Upama, Rupaka, Arthantaranyasa, Slesha and Kramalankara
2. Translation of given passage not exceeding
Unseen Reading Comprehension
Composition and Writing
Descriptive and Narrative essays
Literature
Prescribed Book: For both prose and poetry Intermediate Telugu II year Sahitee Manjusha-Part II
Printed and Published by Telugu Akadami and Board of Intermediate Education, Andhra Pradesh
(2004 Edition)
1. Prose: From prescribed text and non-detailed text.
Lessons to be studied:
1. Ammamma
2. Abhyudaya Kavita
3. Anuvaada Sahityamu

Non-detailed Text:
Alluri Sitaramaraju Natakam (Telugu upavachakam Printed and published by
TeluguAkademi and Board of Intermediate Education Hyderabad.A.P. (2004 Edition)
Lessons to be studied:
1. Girika Balyam
2. Subhashitalu
3. Mutyala saralu
IV. History of Literature
From PrabandhaAge to ModernAge
(i) Only the following poets to be studied: Peddana,
Dhurjati, Chemakura, Kandukuri, Rayaprolu, Sri Sri,
Tirupati Venkata Kavulu and Viswanatha Satyanarayana
(ii) Salient features of Satakas (Neeti and Bhakti) Novel and Drama
Recommended Books:
(i) Andhra Vangmaya Charitra-Dr. D.V. Avadhani,
Andhra Saraswata Parishad, Tilak Road, Hyderabad
(ii) History of Telugu Literature by
(a) Dr. G. Nagaiah-Vol.I
(b) Dr. Dvana Sastry

 


History
(elective sub:- Arts)

  1. Themes in Indian History Part-I
  2. The Story of the First Cities: Harappan ‰Archaeology
  3.  Political and Economic History: How Inscriptions tell a story
  4. Social Histories: Using the Mahabharata
  5.  A History of Buddhism: Sanchi Stupa
  6. Themes in Indian History Part-II
  7. Agrarian Relations: The Ain-i- Akbari
  8. The Mughal Court: Reconstructing Histories through Chronicles
  9. New Architecture: Hampi
  10. Religious Histories: The Bhakti-Sufi tradition
  11. Medieval Society Through Travellers' Accounts
  12. Themes in Indian History Part-III
  13. Colonialism and-Rural Society: Evidence from Official Reports
  14. Representations of 1857
  15. Colonialism and Indian Towns: Town Plans and Municipal Reports
  16. Mahatma Gandhi through Contemporary ‰Eyes
  17. Partition through Oral Sources
  18.  The Making of the Constitution

 


Geography
  (elective sub:- Arts)

Class XII

Unit 2: People 
Population-distribution,density and growth
Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;
Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition; 
Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons
Unit 3: Human Activities 
Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities - some examples from selected countries.
Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types - household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities - some examples from selected countries.
Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and tourism; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries.
Quatenary activities - concept; people engaged in quatenary activities - case study from selected countries.
Unit 4: Transport, Communication & Trade 
Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.
Water transport - inland waterways; major ocean routes.
Air transport - Intercontinental air routes.
Oil and gas pipelines.
Satellite communication and cyber space- Importance and usage for geographical information; use of GPS.
International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.
Ocean: National rights and international treaties.
Unit 5: Human settlements 
Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.
Map Work
Map Work on identification of features based on 1-5 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of World.
B. India: People and Economy
Unit 6: People 
Population: distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational-regional variations in growth of population.
Migration: international, national-causes and consequences.
Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns.
Population, environment and development.
Unit 7: Human Settlements 
Rural settlements - types and distribution.
Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.
Unit 8: Resources and Development 
Land resources - general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and Rubber), agricultural development and problems.
Water resources - availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods -rain water harvesting and watershed management.
Mineral and energy resources - distribution of metallic (Iron ore, Copper, Bauxite, Manganese); non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas and Hydroelectricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and conservation.
Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location; industrial clusters.
Planning in India - target group area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).
Unit 9: Transport, Communication and International Trade 
Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas pipelines; Geographical information and communication networks.
International trade - changing pattern of India's foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.
Unit 10: Geographical Perspective on selected issues and problems 
Environmental pollution; urban - waste disposal.
Urbanisation, rural-urban migration; problems of slums.
Land degradation.
Map Work
Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above units on outline map of India.

 


Eco. Geo.
( Elective Subject :- Arts & Commerce )

Class XII


Unit I
1. Population : Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition
2. Migration : Types, Causes and Consequences
3. Human Development
Unit II
4. Human Settlements
Unit III
5. Land Resources and Agriculture
6. Water Resources
7. Mineral and Energy Resources
8. Manufacturing Industries
9. Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context
Unit IV
10. Transport and Communication
11. International Trade
Unit V
12. Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

Text book:- INDIA PEOPLE AND ECONOMY (NCERT)

 


Political Science
( Elective Subject :- Arts )

Class XII

Part A: Contemporary World Politics

Emergence of two power blocs after the second world war. Arenas of the cold war. Challenges to Bipolarity: Non Aligned Movement, quest for new international economic order. India and the cold war.

New entities in world politics: Russia, Balkan states and Central Asian states, Introduction of democratic politics and capitalism in post-communist regimes. India's relations with Russia and other post-communist countries.
3. US Hegemony in World Politics
Growth of unilateralism: Afghanistan, first Gulf War, response to 9/11 and attack on Iraq. Dominance and challenge to the US in economy and ideology. India's renegotiation of its relationship with the USA.
4. Alternative Centres of Power
Rise of China as an economic power in post-Maoera, creation and expansion of European Union, ASEAN. India's changing relations with China.
5. Contemporary South Asia in the Post-Cold War Era
Democratisation in Pakistan and Nepal. Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Impact of economic globalization on the region. Conflicts and efforts for peace in South Asia. India's relations with its neighbours.
6. International Organizations
Restructuring and the future of the UN. India's position in the restructured UN. Rise of new international actors: new international economic organisations, NGOs. How democratic and accountable are the new institutions of global governance?
7. Security in Contemporary World
Traditional concerns of security and politics of disarmament. Non-traditional or human security: global poverty, health and education. Issues of human rights and migration.
8. Environment and Natural Resources
Environment movement and evolution of global environmental norms. Conflicts over traditional and common property resources. Rights of indigenous people. India's stand in global environmental debates.
9. Globalisation
Economic, cultural and political manifestations. Debates on the nature of consequences of globalisation. Anti-globalisation movements. India as an arena of globalization and struggle against it.
Part B: Politics in India since Independence
10. Challenges of Nation-Building
Nehru's approach to nation-building; Legacy of partition: challenge of 'refugee' resettlement, the Kashmir problem. Organisation and reorganization of states; Political conflicts over language.
11. Era of One-Party Dominance
First three general elections, nature of Congress dominance at the national level, uneven dominance at the state level, coalitional nature of Congress. Major opposition parties.
12. Politics of Planned Development
Five year plans, expansion of state sector and the rise of new economic interests. Famine and suspension of five year plans. Green revolution and its political fallouts.
13. India's External Relations
Nehru's foreign policy. Sino-Indian war of 1962, Indo-Pak war of 1965 and 1971. India's nuclear programme. Shifting alliance in world politics.
14. Challenges to the Congress System
Political succession after Nehru. Non-Congressism and electoral upset of 1967, Congress split and reconstitution, Congress' victory in 1971 elections, politics of 'garibi hatao'.
15. Crisis of the Democratic Order
Search for 'committed' bureaucracy and judiciary. Navnirman movement in Gujarat and the Bihar movement. Emergency: context, constitutional and extra-constitutional dimensions, resistance to emergency. 1977 elections and the formation of Janata Party. Rise of civil liberties organisations.
16. Popular Movements in India
Farmers' movements, Women's movement, Environment and Development-affected people's movements. Implementation of Mandal Commission report and its aftermath.
17. Regional Aspirations
Rise of regional parties. Punjab crisis and the anti Sikh riots of 1984. The Kashmir situation. Challenges and responses in the North East.
18. Recent Developments in Indian Politics
Participatory upsurge in1990s. Rise of the JD and the BJP. Increasing role of regional parties and coalition politics. Coalition governments: NDA (1998 - 2004), UPA (2004 - 2014), NDA (2014 onwards)

 


Economics
(Elective sub:- Arts & Commerce)

Class XII

Part A: Introductory Microeconomics

Meaning of microeconomics and macroeconomics
What is an economy? Central problems of an economy : what, how and for whom to produce; concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.

Consumer's equilibrium – meaning of utility, marginal utility, law of diminishing marginal utility, conditions of consumer's equilibrium using marginal utility analysis.
Indifference curve analysis of consumer's equilibrium-the consumer's budget (budget set and budget line), preferences of the consumer (indifference curve, indifference map) and conditions of consumer's equilibrium.
Demand, market demand, determinants of demand, demand schedule, demand curve and its slope, movement along and shifts in the demand curve; price elasticity of demand - factors affecting price elasticity of demand; measurenment of price elasticity of demand – (a) percentage-change method and (b) geometric method (linear demand curve); relationship between price elasticity of demand and total expenditure.

Production function - Short-Run and Long-Run
Total Product, Average Product and Marginal Product.
Returns to a Factor.
Cost and Revenue: Short run costs - total cost, total fixed cost, total variable cost; Average cost; Average fixed cost, average variable cost and marginal cost-meaning and their relationship.
Revenue - total, average and marginal revenue - meaning and their relationship.
Producer's equilibrium-meaning and its conditions in terms of marginal revenue-marginal cost.
Supply, market supply, determinants of supply, supply schedule, supply curve and its slope, movements along and shifts in supply curve, price elasticity of supply; measurement of price elasticity of supply – (a) percentagechange method and (b) geometric method.

Perfect competition - Features; Determination of market equilibrium and effects of shifts in demand and supply.
Other Market Forms - monopoly, monopolistic competition, oligopoly - their meaning and features.
Simple Applications of Demand and Supply: Price ceiling, price floor.
Part B: Introductory Macroeconomics

Some basic concepts: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
Circular flow of income; Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross and Net Domestic Product (GDP and NDP) - at market price, at factor cost; National Disposable Income (gross and net), Private Income, Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income; Real and Nominal GDP.
GDP and Welfare

Money - its meaning and functions.
Supply of money - Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker's Bank, Controller of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.

Aggregate demand and its components. Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
Short–run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism. 
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them - change in government spending, taxes and money supply.

Government budget - meaning, objectives and components.
Classification of receipts - revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure - revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Measures of government deficit - revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.

Balance of payments account - meaning and components; balance of payments deficit-meaning. 
Foreign exchange rate - meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market.

 


Sociology
(Elective sub :-Arts)

Class XII


INDIAN SOCIETY

CHANGE AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA